Linear Motion Systems Detailed Study & Information For Upcoming Industries

Linear motion systems

What is Linear motion?

Linear motion systems help to accelerate the motion of a particular mechanical tool in a particular direction, which is more or less pre-defined. In fact, these systems are compact in size for driving high performances related to kinetic systems for multiple industries like manufacturing.

Many with even a passing interest in motion control will be aware of precision linear actuators- positioning devices that produce motion in one degree of freedom, and usually don’t include a guiding system for the payload.

Typically electrically driven units are the most accurate, and some drive technologies such as electro-mechanical, piezoelectric, and linear motor acuators are capable of producing linear motion.

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Table of Content

Such precision linear actuators are designed to deliver high performance in situations that require continuous duty operation, and are often to be found in applications such as value control in vehicle applications and the process and packaging industry, pressing and clamping, edge-guide control, backstop adjust, loading and unloading, and drilling, welding, gluing or thermoforming.

ALIO’s XY Monolithic True Nano® linear motion systems' performance is unequaled for 6-D Nano Precision®. With nanometer straightness and flatness you can be assured that your point precision is True Nano®. This stage family is available from 25mm travel to 450mm travel. Standard axis bi-directional repeatability is less than 50 nanometers with optional 10 nanometers bi-directional repeatability for demanding metrology or manufacturing needs.

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Stages can come with NIST traceable data assuring nano precision not just marketing data sheet optimism.

  • Travel: 30mm – 440mm
  • Velocity: up to 1m/sec
  • Resolution: < 5nm
  • Bi-Directional Repeatability: < ± 30nm
  • Displacement Accuracy: < 1 µm
  • Standard and Highly Dynamic Grade

To read more about the crux about these systems, let’s read forward:

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What Is A Linear Motion Systems?

These bearings are designed to provide unhinged motion in one particular direction. It is summed with modern technologies like linear actuators, rolling bearings, linear motors, etc.
More often than not, linear motion systems support engineers to work successfully on the assembly lines and machines. This might require critical calculations related to the sizes of robots and vehicles used for linear motion.

Their designs, thus, are, at times, very costly and complex. But, factors like load, orientation, precision, movement, and speed help to segregate the linear motion systems complexities and assemble the precise and accurate engineering modules.

In the end, the whole assembly of linear motion systems promote the acceleration and/or deceleration at constant speeds, which can be tweaked further as per the demand of the manufacturing process.

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How Do You Calculate Linear Motion?

The major pillars of Linear Motion include calculating the Velocity and acceleration at the beginners’ level.

The formula for calculating of moving object:

V = s/t

Where “V” is denoted by Velocity, “s” is the linear distance that the machine is to cover or has covered till now, “t” is the time taken to cover the same distance.

To dig deeper into the meaning, we can say “Distance” is the path’s length that a body or a machine has covered from point A to point B.

So, when an object changes its position from one end to another, it’s termed as “Displacement,” in the professional language. On the other hand, when the object’s changed position or Displacement is to be captured, keeping the factor of time in line, then it’s called, “Velocity.”

In case, the acceleration is constant, we calculate Velocity by:

V = v0 + a t

Here, “v0” is determined as the initial linear Velocity, and “a” is the acceleration, “t” is obviously the time taken.

Now, the linear distance at the static acceleration is:

S = v0 t + ½ a t2
Now, total Velocity here is:
V = (v02 + 2 a s)1/2   
When Velocity keeps changing or is variable:
V = ds/dt 

Here, “ds” represents a change in distance, and “dt” represents a change in time.
Accordingly, the acceleration to be calculated will be:

a = dv/dt
Here, “dv” is the change in Velocity.

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What Is The Linear Motion Of An Object?

The linear motion of an object will be determined by the one-dimensional motion aligned with the straight line. And as the formulas are mentioned above, the object’s acceleration and velocity under different circumstances will coax it to move in a linear motion.

Top industries like ALIO Industries excel in using these formulas at a basic level to check the direction in which the object is moving against the benchmarks.

These benchmarks for an object can be the required set of speed with precision, repeatability, and accuracy, which the client needs to deliver in the market to other vendors or the ultimate end customer.

In short, there are two types of linear motions for an object:

  • Uniform linear motion where the velocity is constant or the acceleration is zero.
  • Non-uniform linear motion where velocity is variable or the acceleration is non-zero.

For those who are not aware, linear motion is actually the basic form of motion for an object.

Even Newton’s first law of motion states that an object will continue to move along the straight line under the velocity of constant degree, that is, until and unless an external or net force is applied extensively.

By external forces, it should be understood that the gravity and friction are being talked about on a generic level, unless and until stated otherwise.

Another way to compare the trajectory of linear motion is with the general motion. During general motion, the object’s velocity added with the position is termed as vectors, confining to the limits of direction and magnitude.

Put on another way, linear motion vectors of the systems are constant and equal. In simpler terms, it means that the defined object is not moving in another direction. Its trajectory is going on along the axis.

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How Does A Linear Motion Slide Work?

One of the most important components in the whole package of linear motion systems is the linear slider or linear motion bearing. It is designed and used by top players like ALIO Industries to direct the objects freely in one direction.

These bearings generally use components like a pad, roller systems, rail, bushing, etc. The rail is placed on the base and doesn’t need to be of a straight line. A carriage is another part that works together on the moving parts of the linear slider.

Ball screws or led screws support the rotary mechanism in the linear slider to coax the movement of the carriage. These screws are attached to the stationary base while the nut’s assemblage is working with the carriage once it starts to move.

With screws’ movement, the nut and the carriage move in a similar direction. This screw can be manipulated by a handwheel. Whereas, when we talk about other linear motion systems like actuators, pneumatic cylinders, hydraulic cylinders, etc., they might not require a ball screw or a lead screw.

Advantage And Disadvantage



  • Has higher accuracy with the use of rolling bearings to cause the required amount of lubrication.
  • Proper alignment of the components involved in the linear motion system is required for it to work as expected. When one of the components on the linear motion guide is not connected either with the base or the carriage properly, the motion will be not accelerated.
  • Even with a lesser force, fast speed movements are captured. So, the systems are beneficial and cost-effective for the assembly lines during the various stages of manufacturing.
  • The complexity behind the assortment of the linear motion can be difficult for those who do not have prior knowledge of linear motion.
  • Machine using the linear motion system can take up the load in a symmetrical manner without a delay or unwanted stoppages.